In the 17th and 18th centuries there was an ascendant cultural outlook that may be termed the liberal outlook. It was best represented by the Scottish enlightenment, especially Adam Smith, and it flowed into a liberal era, which came to be represented politically by people like Richard Cobden, William Gladstone, and John Bright. The liberal outlook revolved around a number of central terms (in English-language discourse, the context of the semantic issue that concerns us).
Especially from 1880 there began an undoing of the meaning of the central terms, among them the word liberal. The tendency of the trends of the past 130 years has been toward the governmentalization of social affairs. The tendency exploded during the First World War, the Interwar Years, and the Second World War. After the Second World War the most extreme forms of governmentalization were pushed back and there have since been movements against the governmentalization trend. But by no means has the original liberal outlook been restored to its earlier cultural standing. The semantic catastrophes of the period 1880-1940 persist, and today, amidst the confusion of tongues, governmentalization continues to hold its ground and even creep forward. For the term liberal, in particular, it is especially in the United States and Canada that the term is used in ways to which we take exception.
We the undersigned affirm the original arc of liberalism, and the intention not to relinquish the term liberal to the trends, semantic and institutional, toward the governmentalization of social affairs.
Our goal is to gather at least 500 signatures (we hope even more wish to sign!). We have focused our efforts on people from Anglophonic countries because in most other countries “liberal” largely retains the original meaning.
Timothy Andrews, Executive Dir., Australian Taxpayers’ Alliance
Winton Bates, Blogger, Freedom and Flourishing
Chris Berg, Dir. of Policy, Inst. of Public Affairs
Juel Briggs, Businesswoman
Gabriel Buckley, National President, Liberal Democratic Party
Mark Hornshaw, Lecturer in Econ., U. of Notre Dame Australia
John Humphreys, Visiting Lecturer of Economics, U. of Queensland
Darryn Jensen, Senior Lecturer in Law, U. of Queensland
Trisha Jha, Policy Analyst, Centre for Independent Studies
Rick Johnson, Economist, Government sector
Greg Lindsay, Executive Director, Centre for Independent Studies
Jenny Lindsay, General Manager, The Centre for Independent Studies
Duncan McGregor, Blogger
David Morrison, Reader in Law, The U. of Queensland
Julie Novak, Senior Fellow, Institute of Public Affairs
James Paterson, Dir. of Dev. and Communications, Inst. of Public Affairs
Suri Ratnapala, Prof. of Public Law, The U. of Queensland
Charles Richardson, Psephologist, Crikey
Andrew Scobie, Chairman, Marque’d Capital
Brad R. Taylor, Postdoctoral Fellow, The Australian National U.
Timothy Wilson, Australian Human Rights Commissioner, AU Human Rights Commission
Jorge Borlandelli, Secretary, The Nassau Institute
Paul Blair, Retired Fire Captain, Ontario
Matt Bufton, Executive Director, Inst. for Liberal Studies
Brian Lee Crowley, Managing Director, Macdonald-Laurier Institute
Chance Davies, Student, Grande Prairie Regional College
Pierre Desrochers, Associate Prof. of Geography, U. of Toronto
Bradley Doucet, English Editor, Le Québécois Libre
Jasmin Guénette, Vice President, MEI
Peter Holle, President, Frontier Centre for Public Policy
Pierre Lemieux, Professeur associé, Université du Québec en Outaouais
Wendy McElroy, Fellow, Independent Institute
Janet Neilson , Director, Inst. for Liberal Studies
Allen Paley, V.P. Political Action, Libertarian Party of Canada
Derek Sabourin, friend of liberty
Chris Schnurr, blogger
Xavier de Vanssay, Prof. of Economics, York U.
Redmond Weissenberger, Chairman, Executive Director, Mises Canada
Bernard Robertson, Barrister, Wellington
Paul Walker, Economist, Christchurch
Brian C Benfield, Prof., Insurance and Risk Mgt., U. of the Witwatersrand
Eustace Davie, Director, Free Market Foundation
Victoria Adams, President, Queen Mary Libertarian Society
Nigel Ashford, Prof. of Politics, Staffordshire U.
Steve Baker, MP, Parliament
Philip Booth, Prof., City U., London and Inst. of Economic Affairs
Ryan Bourne , Head of Public Policy, Inst. of Economic Affairs
Sam Bowman, Research Director, Adam Smith Institute
Rory Broomfield, Director, The Freedom Association
Lewis Brown, Digital Communications Manager, Centre for Policy Studies
Eamonn Butler, Director, Adam Smith Institute
Laurie Carver, University of Southampton
Peter Cleppe, Head of Brussels office, Open Europe
Timothy Congdon, Chair of The Freedom Association
Iain Dale, Drivetime presenter, LBC Radio
Stephen Davies, Education Director, Institute of Economic Affairs
Tim Evans, Senior Fellow, Adam Smith Institute
Martin Evison, Prof., Northumbria U.
Roger Fox, Visiting Fellow, U. of Buckingham
Alan Geal, Director, Pleiade Associates
Andrew Gruffudd, Principal, Voice of Albion news journal
Andrew Haldenby, Director, Reform
Jonathan Isaby, Chief Executive, The TaxPayers’ Alliance
Lee Jenkins, Deputy Editor, The Backbencher Magazine
Ketan Jha, Managing Editor, Sussex Law Review
Gavin Kennedy, Emeritus Prof., Edinburgh Business School, Heriot-Watt U.
Stephanie Lis, Head of Communications, Inst. of Economic Affairs
Mark Littlewood, Dir. General & Ralph Harris Fellow, Inst. of Economic Affairs
Kevin Lohse, friend of liberty
Alan Macfarlane, Prof. of Anthropology, Cambridge U.
John Meadowcroft, Senior Lecturer, King’s College London
Brian Micklethwait, blogger, www.samizdata.net
Chris Mounsey, UX Director, Blogger, Devil’s Kitchen
Kristian Niemietz, Senior Research Fellow, Inst. of Economic Affairs
Tom Papworth, Assoc. Dir. of Economic Policy, CentreForum
Mark Pennington, Prof. of Public Policy, King’s College London
Philip Salter, Director, The Entrepreneurs Network
Robert Sauer, Prof. of Economics, U. of London
Kamen Shoylev, Independent Researcher
Marc Sidwell, Managing Editor, City A.M.
Craig Smith, Lecturer, The U. of Glasgow
Christopher Snowdon, Research Fellow, Inst. of Economic Affairs
Elaine Sternberg, Philosophy & Corp. Governance Fellow, Inst. of Economic Affairs
Peter D. Williams, Executive Officer, Right To Life
Tim Worstall, Senior Fellow, Adam Smith Institute
Sherzod Abdukadirov, Research Fellow, George Mason U.
Paul Dragos Aligica, Senior Fellow, George Mason U.
William Allen, Professor of Economics, UCLA
Jonathan Anomaly, Lecturer, Duke
Larry Arnhart, Prof. of Political Science, Northern Illinois U.
Maggie Austgen, LOLA Omaha
Jose Azel, Senior Research Assoc., U. of Miami
John Baden, Chairman, FREE
Neera Badhwar, Prof., U. of Oklahoma/George Mason U.
Howard Baetjer, Lecturer, Towson University
Charles Baird, Professor of Economics, Emeritus, CSU East Bay
Ted Balaker, Founding Partner, Korchula Productions
F. William Ballou, Member, Mont Pelerin Society
Sam Baker, GFI
Doug Bandow, Senior Fellow, Cato Institute
Drew Battista, Liberal
Tom W. Bell, Prof. of Law, Chapman U.
Bruce Benson, Prof. of Economics, Florida State U.
Daniel Bier, Executive Editor, The Skeptical Libertarian
Simon Bilo, Asst. Prof. of Economics, Allegheny College
Walter Block, Prof. of Economics, Loyola U. New Orleans
Peter Boettke, Prof. of Economics & Philosophy, George Mason U.
Cecil Bohanon, Prof. of Economics, Ball State U.
Mark Bonica, Asst. Prof., Baylor U.
Peter Bos, President, Polydyne, Inc.
Donald Boudreax, Prof. of Economics, George Mason U.
Casey Bowman , Independent Researcher
Jason Briggeman, Adjunct Faculty in Economics, Central Texas College
James Broughel, Program Manager, Mercatus Center at George Mason U.
Henry N. Butler, Executive Director, Law & Econ. Center, George Mason U.
Lewis Butler, Prof. of Economics, Hillsdale College
Nicolas Cachanosky, Asst. Prof. of Economics, Metropolitan State U. of Denver
Peter T. Calcagno, Prof. of Economics, College of Charleston
Bruce Caldwell, Prof. of Economics, Duke U.
James Camire, CEO, SMT
Troy Camplin, Lecturer of English, U. of North Texas at Dallas
Nicholas Capaldi, Prof., Center for Spiritual Capital, Loyola U.
Alejandro Chafuen, President, Atlas Network
Armeane Choksi, Director, CopiaGlobal, Inc.
Victor Claar, Prof. of Economics, Henderson State U.
Henry C. Clark, Visiting Prof., Clemson U.
Michael Clark, Prof. of Economics, Hillsdale College
Warren Coats, Retired, International Monetary Fund
John P. Cochran, Emer. Dean Sch. of Bus. & Emer. Prof. of Econ., Metrop. State U. of Denver
Andrew Cohen, Assoc. Prof., Georgia State U.
Joseph Connors, Visiting Asst. Prof., Wake Forest U.
Christopher J. Conover, Research Scholar, Duke U.
Matthew Copple, Libertarian Activist
Peter Crabb, Professor, Northwest Nazarene University
Andy Craig, Secretary of State candidate, Libertarian Party of Wisconsin
Kevin Currie-Knight, Postdoctoral Fellow , U. of Illinois, Springfield
D. Allen Dalton, Adjunct Faculty in Economics, Boise State U.
Daniel D’Amico, Assoc. Prof. of Economics, Loyola U.
Harry David, Copy Editor and Proofreader, Invisible Order
Antony Davies, Assoc. Prof. of Economics, Duquesne U.
Shawn Decker, Research Chemist, Entrepreneur
Gregory Delemeester, Prof. of Economics, Marietta College
Henry Demmert, (retired), Santa Clara U.
Gregory Dempster, Prof. of Econ. and Business, Hampden-Sydney College
William C. Dennis, Council Member, The Philanthropic Enterprise
Arthur M. Diamond, Jr., Prof. of Economics, U. of Nebraska
Jennifer Dirmeyer, Asst. Prof., Ferris State U.
Matt Dobra, Prof. of Economics, Methodist U.
William Doss, Deputy Dir., Grassroots Programs, Leadership Institute
Rachel Douchant, Director, Liberty & Ethics Center, Lindenwood U.
Gregory Downing, Prof.
Dan Drechsel, CEO, HireIQ Solutions
Royce Dunbar, Systems Engineer
Lenore T. Ealy, President, The Philanthropic Enterprise
Richard Ebeling, Professor of Economics, Northwood U.
John B. Egger, Prof. Emeritus, Towson U.
Ross Emmett, Prof. of Pol. Economy and Pol. Theory & Const. Democracy, Michigan State U.
Richard Epstein, Prof. of Law, New York U.
John Estill, Lecturer, San Jose State U.
Larry Eubanks, Assoc. Prof., U. of Colorado at Colorado Springs
Williamson M. Evers, Research Fellow, Hoover Institution
Andrea Faggion , Professor of Philosophy , State U. of Londrina – Brazil
Peter Grove Fleming, President, Peter Fleming Literary Agency
Fred Foldvary, Lecturer in Economics, San Jose State U.
Corrie Foos, Co-Founder, Mont Hamilton Society
Matthew Ford, Prof. of Management, Northern Kentucky U.
Micah Frankel, Prof., California State U.
David E.R. Gay, Prof., U. of Arkansas
Warren Gibson, Economics Lecturer, San Jose State U.
Ephraim Gildor, President, Gildor Investments
Francisco Gonzalez, VP of Advancement, The James Madison Institute
John Goode, Eastview Consulting Inc
Peter Gordon, Prof. Emeritus, USC
Joe Green, Asst. Prof. of Political Science, Dixie State
Walter Grinder, President Emeritus, Institute for Civil Society
Ronald Guillemette, blogger & former MIS professor, U. of Houston
James Gwartney, Prof. of Economics, Florida State U.
Jonathan Haidt, Professor, New York University, Stern School of Business
Colleen Haight, Associate Prof. in Economics, San Jose State U.
Eric Hammer, Research Fellow, George Mason U.
Michael Hammock, Asst. Prof. of Economics, Middle Tennessee State U.
David Hart, Director of the Online Library of Liberty, Liberty Fund
Steven Hayward, Prof., Pepperdine U.
Thomas W. Hazlett, Prof. of Law & Economics, George Mason U.
Christine Dunn Henderson, Senior Fellow, Liberty Fund, Inc.
David R. Henderson, Research Fellow, Hoover Institution
Jule Herbert, Attorney
Jorge Herrera, Infinite Banking Concept Advocate, Sound Money Financial Solutions
Stephen Hicks, Ph.D., Prof. of Philosophy, Rockford U.
Arnold Hite, Prof. of Economics, Charleston Southern U.
Fergus Hodgson, Editor in Chief, PanAm Post
Andrew Hofer, Managing Dir., Brown Brothers Harriman & Co.
Robert M. Hoffman, Publisher, U. of Chicago Press
Randall Holcombe, Prof. of Economics, Florida State U.
Michael Horney, Research Associate, Free State Foundation
Steven Horwitz, Prof. of Economics, St. Lawrence U.
Lee Hoskins, Senior Fellow, Pacific Research Institute
Daniel Houser, Prof. of Economics, George Mason U.
Hunter Hustus, Mr, Northeastern U.
Sanford Ikeda, Assoc. Prof. of Economics, Purchase College, SUNY
Jonathan B. Imber, Prof. of Sociology, Wellesley College
Brian Jacobsen, Assoc. Prof., Wisconsin Lutheran College
Garett Jones, Associate Prof. of Economics, George Mason U.
Stephen Jones, Economist, George Mason University
Jerry L Jordan, President, Pacific Academy for Advanced Sciences
Rebecca Kallies, Events Dir., Students For Liberty: N. American Exec. Board
Mitchell Kaufman, Philosophy Instructor, U. of Washington
John L. Kelly, Business Owner
Rick Kelo, Economist, Pro Bono Economics
Carrie B. Kerekes, Asst. Prof. of Economics, Florida Gulf Coast U.
Daniel B. Klein, Prof. of Economics, George Mason U.
Yossi Klement, Musician/Teacher/Conductor/Lecturer, Mount Holyoke College, et. al.
Everett Knott, Retired Anesthesiologist
Eric Kohn, Chairman, America’s Future Foundation – Chicago
David Kopel, Research Dir. & Adj. Prof. of Const. Law, Denver U.
Alan Charles Kors, Prof. of History, U. of Pennsylvania
David Kotter, Assoc. Prof. of Theology and Economics, Colorado Christian U.
Mark Koyama, Asst. Prof., George Mason U.
Jason Kuznicki, Research Fellow, The Cato Institute
Warren Lammert, Founder, Granite Point Capital
Mitchell Langbert, Assoc. Prof., Brooklyn College, City U. of New York
Richard Langlois, Prof. of Economics, The U. of Connecticut
Robert Lawson, Fullinwider Chair in Economic Freedom, Southern Methodist U.
Dwight Lee, Scholar in Residence, Southern Methodist U.
George Leef, Director of Research, Pope Center for Higher Ed. Policy
Jean Leonard, Owner, Great Divide Publishing
Peter Lewin, Clinical Prof., Economics, U. of Texas at Dallas
Hyrum Lewis, Assoc. Prof. of History, Brigham Young U.-Idaho
Jody Lipford, Prof. of Economics, Presbyterian College
Loren Lomasky, Prof. of Political Philosophy, U. of Virginia
Richard Lorenc, Dir. of Programs & Alumni Relations, Foundation for Econ. Education
Michael Lotus, Attorney and Author, America 3.0
Alvin Lowi, Engineer, Alvin Lowi and Associates
William J. Luther, Asst. Prof. of Economics, Kenyon College
Spencer MacCallum, Director, The Heather Foundation
Douglas MacKenzie, Asst. Prof., Carroll College
Phillip Magness, Academic Program Dir., Inst. for Humane Studies, George Mason U.
Bruce Majors, Mayoral candidate, Libertarian party
Alexei Marcoux, Assoc. Prof. of Business Ethics, Loyola U. Chicago
Frederic Marks, Author, Capitalism: The Liberal Revolution
Michael L. Marlow, Prof. of Economics, California Polytechnic State U.
Charles Martin, Science and Technology Editor, PJMedia
Christopher S. Martin, Asst. Prof. of Economics, Hillsdale College
Donna Matias, Prof. of Law, U. of San Diego
William H.A. McBride, Chief Economist, Tax Foundation
Deirdre McCloskey, Prof. of Econ. & History, U. of Illinois at Chicago
James E. McClure, Prof. of Economics, Ball State U.
Tom Means, Prof. of Economics, San Jose State U.
Richard Meinhard, Academic Advisor, Cascade Policy Institute
Stephen Miller, Assoc. Prof. of Economics, Western Carolina U.
Lotta Moberg, Economics Instructor, George Mason U.
Mikey Mondavi, Microsoft Corp
Adam D. Moore, Assoc. Prof., Information School, U. of Washington
Claire Morgan, Director of Academic Relations, Mercatus Center at GMU
Julian Morris, VP of Research, Reason Foundation
John Moser, Prof. of History, Ashland U.
Cornelia Mrose, co-host of the Steve Mayo Show, WVOX
James Mulcahy, Adjunct lecturer, SUNY at Buffalo
Mike Munger, PPE Director, Duke U.
Charles Murray, W.H. Brady Scholar, The American Enterprise Inst. for Public Policy Research
Iain Murray, Vice President for Strategy, Competitive Enterprise Institute
Todd Myers, Assoc. Prof., Grossmont College
David Nalle, Executive Director, Texas Liberty Foundation
Olga Nicoara, Visiting Asst. Prof. of Economics, Denison U.
Patrick Nolan, Distinguished Prof. Emeritus, Sociology, U. of South Carolina
Philip Nuetzel, VP – Mortgage Modeling and Analytics, Wells Fargo Home Mortgage
Barbara Oakley, Prof. of Engineering, Oakland U.
James Otteson, Teaching Prof. of Political Economy, Wake Forest U.
Alexandre Padilla, Assoc. Prof. of Economics, Metropolitan State U. of Denver
Tom G. Palmer, Executive Vice President, The Atlas Network
George Pearson, Board Chair, Kansas Policy Institute
Sam Peltzman, Prof. of Economics, U. of Chicago
Patrick Peterson, Chief Networker, Silicon Valley Freedom Initiative
Dave Petrich, Editor, PugetSoundMagazine.com
Dana Pickard, Attorney, Howland Evangelista Kohlenberg Burnett LLP
Mark Poles, U. of St Mark & St John
Ivan Pongracic, Jr., Professor of Economics, Hillsdale College
Robert Poole, Searle Freedom Trust Transportation Fellow, Reason Foundation
Benjamin Powell, Prof., Texas Tech U.
Linda Raeder, Assoc. Prof. of Political Science, Palm Beach Atlantic U.
Greg Ransom, Blogger, Taking. Hayek Seriously
Roger Ream, President, Fund for American Studies
Kyle Rearden, blogger, The Last Bastille
Dustin Rhodes, Liberty Advocate
Andrea Millen Rich, President, Center for Independent Thought
Jeff Riggenbach, Senior Fellow, Randolph Bourne Institute
Salvador Rivera, Professor of History and Sociology, State U. of NY
Mario J. Rizzo, Associate Prof. of Economics, New York U.
Jenna Robinson, Dir. of Outreach, Pope Center for Higher Ed. Policy
Dalibor Rohac, Policy Analyst, Cato Institute
Kevin Rollins, Editor, Free Liberal
Gabriel Roth, The Independent Institute
Paul H. Rubin, Prof. of Economics, Emory U.
Andrew Rule, SCC- Member without portfolio, Libertarian Party of Connecticut
Thomas Carl Rustici, Asst. Prof. of Economics, George Mason U.
Peter Samuel, Associate, Reason
Rohnn Sanderson, Assoc. Prof. Finance/Economics, Brescia U.
Frederic Sautet, Assoc. Prof. of Economics, The Catholic U. of America
Thomas Saving, Prof. Of Economics, Texas A&M U.
D. Eric Schansberg, Prof. of Economics, Indiana U. Southeast
Michael Schwarz, Asst. Prof. of History, Ashland U.
Marc Scribner, Research Fellow, Competitive Enterprise Institute
Daniel Shapiro, Prof. of Philosophy, West Virginia U.
Dennis Sheehan, Prof, of Finance, Penn State Smeal College of Business
Amity Shlaes, Chair, Calvin Coolidge Presidential Foundation
William F. Shughart II, Prof. of Public Choice, Utah State U.
Rand Simberg, President, Interglobal Media, LLC
Randy T. Simmons, Prof. of Political Economy, Utah State U.
Aeon Skoble, Prof. of Philosophy, Bridgewater State U.
Mark Skousen, Prof. of Economics, Chapman U.
Sarah Skwire, Fellow, Liberty Fund Inc
Adam C. Smith, Asst. Prof., Johnson & Wales U.
Bradley Smith, Blackmore/Nault Prof. of Law, Capital U.
Daniel J. Smith, Asst. Prof. of Economics, Troy U.
George H. Smith, Lecturer, Cato Institute
Jeffrey Smith, Prof. of Economics, U. of Michigan
Vernon Smith, Prof. of Economics, Chapman U.
Nicholas Snow, Visiting Asst. Prof. of Economics, Kenyon College
Jason Sorens, Lecturer, Dartmouth College
Mark Steckbeck, Prof. of Economics, Campbell U.
John Stephens, Site Design and Operations, Econ Journal Watch
Edward Peter Stringham, Prof. of Economics, Texas Tech U.
John Strong, Owner, EtherPros
Michael Strong, CEO, FLOW
Caleb Sturges, Researcher, Chapman U
Amy H. Sturgis, Asst. Prof. of Liberal Studies, Lenoir-Rhyne U.
Dendi Suhubdy, NCSU
Daniel Sutter, Prof. of Economics, Troy U.
James Stacey Taylor, Associate Prof., The College of New Jersey
Richard Sweeney, Chairholder in International Finance, Georgetown U.
Tana Switsky, Texan, Libertarian
Berin Szoka, President, TechFreedom
Harry E. Teasley Jr., Emeritus Chairman, Reason Foundation
Jeff Teebken, Instructor, Front Range Community College
Justin Teeman, Guest Lecturer of Psych., U. of Central Oklahoma
Fernando Tesón, Eminent Scholar, Florida State U.
David J. Theroux, Founder and President, The Independent Institute
Clifford F. Thies, Prof. of Economics & Finance, Shenandoah U.
Diana Thomas, Assoc. Prof., Creighton U.
Michael D. Thomas, Asst. Prof., Creighton U.
Richelle Thomas, Research Scientist
Kurt Todoroff, Entrepreneur
Clint Townsend, Leadership Manager, Students For Liberty
Jeffrey Tucker, CLO, liberty.me
David Tufte, Assoc. Prof., Southern Utah U.
Matthew Tyrmand, Deputy Dir., American Transparency-OpenTheBooks.com
Douglas Den Uyl, VP of Educational Programs, Liberty Fund
Ricardo Valenzuela, Chairman, Intermex Financial
Richard Vedder, Prof. Of Economics Emeritus, Ohio U.
Eduardo Vidal, Commitee Member, Harris County Republican Party
Richard Wagner, Prof. of Economics, George Mason University
Howard Wall, Director, Hammond Institute, Lindenwood U.
Marion Warin-Miller, Translator/Writer, Franco-American Translations
Larry Wasserman, Prof. of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University
Thomas Weber, Translator & Writer
Volker M Welter, Prof., UC Santa Barbara
Nikolai G. Wenzel, Visiting Asst. Prof. of Econ., Florida Gulf Coast U.
Louis White, USAF, retired
Mark D. White, Dept. Chair & Prof. of Philosophy, College of Staten Island/CUNY
Michael White, Mercatus Center Donor
Sabrina Whiterose, Station Manager, Madison Cable Television
Carl Wilkinson, Doctor of Journalism, Columbia U.
Bonnie Wilson, Associate Prof. of Economics, Saint Louis U.
Abel Winn, Asst. Prof. in Economics, Chapman U.
Bill Woolsey, Assoc. Prof., The Citadel
Martin Morse Wooster, Author
Benjamin Zycher, John G. Searle Scholar, American Enterprise Inst.
Zenon X. Zygmont, Prof. of Economics, Western Oregon U.
Matt Zwolinski, Assoc. Prof. of Philosophy, U. of San Diego
Todd Zywicki, Prof. of Law, George Mason U.
As noted, this project is focused on the use of “liberal” in English-language discourse, and we have canvassed for signatures only among people in countries where English is a primary language (the countries listed above). However, several other individuals have learned of our project and took the initiative to contact us to sign on. Here we list such other individuals who have supported the project.
Pedro H. Albuquerque, Assoc. Prof., KEDGE Business School – France
Ivan Alonso, independent scholar – Perú
David Emanuel Andersson, Asst. Prof. of Econ., Nottingham U. Business School China – China
Pedro Molina Arathoon, Trustee, Universidad Francisco Marroquin – Guatemala
Michel Asso, Electronic Music Composer/Conceptual Artist, independent – France
Jonny H. Bahk-Halberg, Assoc. Prof., English/Communications, UMUC Asia – S. Korea
Julio César De León Barbero, Prof. of Philosophy, Francisco Marroquin U. – Guatemala
Fernando Valdés Benavides, University of Guanajuato – México
Niclas Berggren, Assoc. Prof., Research Inst. of Industrial Economics (IFN) – Sweden
Jekabs Bikis, Chair, International Business Admin. Dept., LCC International U. – Lithuania
Maria Blanco, Prof. of Hist. of Economic Thought, Universidad CEU-San Pablo (Madrid) – Spain
Alfredo Bullard, Professor, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú – Perú
Guillermo Cabieses, Prof. of Law & Economics, Universidad de Lima – Perú
Ricardo Castiblanco-Ramirez, Congressman Advisor, House of Representatives – Colombia
Jorge Chapas, CEO, Rana – Guatemala
Terry Crossman, Director, Signium International – China
Edwar Enrique Escalante, Executive Director, Andes Libres – Peru
Ignacio Ibáñez Ferrándiz, Senior Advisor, Center for a Secure Free Society – Spain/USA
Luis Figueroa, Prof. of Social Philosophy, Universidad Francisco Marroquín – Guatemala
Hana Fischer, Columnist and writer, Panam Post – Uruguay
Nicolai Foss, Professor, Copenhagen Business School – Denmark
Enrique Ghersi, Prof. of Law & Economics, Univ. de Lima – Perú
Athanasios Ghikas, CEO, Clarus esco – Greece
Alejandro Gómez, Economic History Professor, Universidad del CEMA – Argentina
Edwin van de Haar, independent scholar – Netherlands
Björn Hasselgren, Research Fellow, KTH Royal Inst. of Technology – Sweden
Andrew Humphries, Professor, Universidad Francisco Marroquin – Guatemala
Giancarlo Ibarguen, Trustee, Universidad Francisco Marroquin – Guatemala
Mirco Jakse, Developer, EPiServer – Sweden
Nils Karlson, Professor, The RATIO Institute – Sweden
Chung-Ho Kim, Professor, Yonsei University – South Korea
Useong Kim, Ph.D. Candidate , Seoul National University – South Korea
Pavel Kuchar, Asst. Prof., University of Guanajuato – Mexico
Peter Kurrild-Klitgaard, Prof. of Political Theory, Copenhagen U. – Denmark
Remberto Latorre, Research Fellow, Austrian Economics Center – Austria
Erik Lidström, Author – Sweden
Christopher Lingle, Visiting Prof. of Economics, Universidad Francisco Marroquin – Guatemala
Harry Edgar Pereda Lozano, President, Instituto Mercado Informado – Perú
Darius Martin, Asst. Prof. of Economics, American U. of Beirut – Lebanon
Guillermo W. Méndez, Prof. of Social Philosophy and Hiistory of Ideas, Universidad Francisco Marroquin – Guatemala
Nenad Mitovski, Direktor, Borg – Serbia
Panagiotis Grivas – Greece
Guillermo Peña Panting, Executive Director, Eleutera – Honduras
Ramon Parellada, Trustee, Universidad Francisco Marroquin – Guatemala
Julian Plana, Journalist – España
Juan José Ramírez Ochoa, Prof. of Soc. Phil. & Econ., Francisco Marroquín U. – Guatemala
Guisela Roldan, PLG – Guatemala
Roberto Salinas-León, President, Mexico Business Forum – Mexico
Jose Luis Sardon, Dean, Law School, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC) – Perú
Carlos de Sousa, Affiliate Fellow, Bruegel – Belgium
Ezequiel Spector, Prof. of Law and Phil., Universidad Torcuato Di Tella – Argentina
Charlotta Stern, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of Sociology, Stockholm U. – Sweden
Ricardo Urdaneta, Partner, Urdaneta Holguín Abogados – Columbia
Mario Zuniga, Attorney, Prof. of Law & Economics, Contribuyentes por Respeto – Perú
Jordan Anetsberger, Hillsdale College – USA
Laurie Barnes, Hillsdale College – USA
César Oncoy Bustamante, Estudiante, Universidad Privada del Norte – Perú
Mark Vincent Constantino, Los Angeles Mission College – USA
Nick Cowen, King’s College London – UK
Sean Davey, University College London – UK
James Dickson, Imperial College London – UK
Terrence Daugherty, Student of Theology and Biblical Languages, The Master’s College – USA
Christopher Flener, PhD Student, Walden University – USA
Stephen Harrop, Student, Johns Hopkins University – USA
Aiden Hepworth, LSE – UK
Maxwell Hill, PhD Student, Georgia Institute of Technology – USA
James Inwood, Hillsdale College – USA
Péter Isztin, PhD student, ELTE – Hungary
Daniel Kendrick, Georgetown U. – USA
Wolf von Laer, PhD Student, King’s College London – UK
Trent MacDonald, PhD Student, RMIT University – Australia
Mark Malik, LSE – UK
Michael McDonald, Hillsdale College – USA
Edward Middleton, George Mason U.- USA
João Victor Guedes Neto, Universidade Federal de Alfenas – Brazil
Raymond Niles, George Mason U. – USA
Clark Ruper, Vice President, Students For Liberty International – USA
Brendan Quinn, FLagler College – USA
Harrison Searles III, George Mason U. – USA
Austill Stuart, George Mason U. – USA
Kenneth Sundaresan, U. of Chicago – USA
Ross Taggart, PhD Student, Duke University – USA
Ross Taylor, U. of Brighton – UK
Jeff Tomko, Student, Metropolitan State U., Denver – USA
Anand Venigalla – USA
David Walker, Student, U. of Montana School of Law – USA
Zachary Woodman, Hillsdale College – USA